The first commit to what became CartoCSS (but was temporarily named ‘mess’, ‘carto.js’, and then ‘carto’) was made on December 1, 2010. Since then it’s gotten a lot of developer love - most of its speed is thanks to Konstantin’s genius and recent refinements are thanks to Dane.
It’s been a while, and, thanks to its inclusion in TileMill, a lot of people have used CartoCSS. It’s about time for some reflection.
For the most part, web maps are images: when you go to Google Maps or make a map with TileMill, you are seeing PNG image files which have been rendered by a renderer. In the case of TileMill, that renderer is Mapnik, a successful open-source project - Google Maps is proprietary technology.
These maps are styled; roads have a color, width, label style, halos, and so on - very complex styles, that are made ‘once’ - by assigning a type to a style and letting that dictate the world. And so this styling is rarely done with a WYSIWYG interface like Adobe Photoshop - it’s more likely similar to coding.
Renderers thus support style formats. Mapnik natively supports XML stylesheets, which are great for control, but can be difficult to learn and write by hand, especially for people who are mainly designers and artists rather than programmers.
This article is about a specific style format called CartoCSS which extends the metaphor of CSS to maps. The kernel of the idea was devised by Mike Migurski in 2008, and the most recent iteration was done by myself and the team at MapBox starting in 2010. This post is about the evolution of CartoCSS, thoughts on whether this metphor of CSS-to-maps is a leaky abstraction or if its usefulness outweights its awkwardness.
As time went on, we decided to make it multi-platform and saw that an async-in-sync framework like Tornado would be unsustainable. And so we decided on node.js, still then a very early project, because of its design & all-async approach.
However, as time went on, we found a few things to be desired. I was chasing after better error reporting - since TileMill would report errors in a GUI and ideally give great feedback for getting novice users up to speed. Cascadenik’s performance on large stylesheets was also lacking at the time. And, finally, of course, bridging the gap between a Python stylesheet processor and a node.js application was awkward and problematic.
The CartoCSS implementation is based off of LESS CSS, one of the strongest CSS pre-processors around. I have no regrets around this decision - the LESS parser has been fast enough to never be a bottleneck, and its general AST technique is fairly clean.
CartoCSS, like Cascadenik looks like CSS, which is a language friendly enough to fit into with ‘it isn’t programming’ mold of HTML: specifically, lots of people use CSS.
However, it’s important to note that CartoCSS isn’t CSS. To be clear, I’m happy when people come away with the impression that CartoCSS is CSS, and that TileMill is using CSS to style things in-browser. If we can create that level of magic, it’s wonderful - and taking advantage of the CSS syntax familiarity to reduce people’s self-destructive “I can’t do this” reaction is huge.
CartoCSS is not CSS in a few ways.
First, Mapnik does not implement cascading - Carto does. Internally, CartoCSS implements CSS specificity, collapses and coalesces rules, and essentially plays the role of a web browser. This is where most of the performance gain is from Cascadenik (in doing this intelligently) but also where most of the effort goes in maintaining it.
Second, Mapnik follows a painter’s model, not a document model. What this means is that in CSS, you can have code like:
You give the div its border: the div has one potential border, which can be styled and turned on and off with
The painter’s model is the reverse: there are potentially infinite borders, fills, markers, and so on, and you assign them to elements. In mock-HTML, it would be like:
Also, the HTML ‘order’ is no longer. HTML stacks styles - borders are around fills, paddings are within them. Maps can have borders behind or in front of fills, and multiple borders in any order.
What does this mean for a CSS pre-processor for maps? You could simply restrict this power from users of the pre-processor, but we decided not to - after all, TileMill is used internally for the MapBox Streets product, so it needs to scale to extreme-pro use cases.
CartoCSS does this with attachments:
The attachment syntax (stolen from CSS pseudo-elements) lets you say that ‘for this style I’m going to have multiples of a symbolizer’. Cacadenik approached this problem differently - you had
line-inline - like preset attachments that gave you a few bonus symbolizers for specific purposes. Cascadenik now supports attachments, so there’s no real difference here.
The idea of the painter’s model not having a guaranteed order also affects how ordering in the language works:
Another big difference is that with the data model of maps, there is no nesting.
Nesting is essential in HTML & CSS - HTML is a document tree and we very often uses classes like
p a to style links within paragraphs differently than links links in menus. Expressing this nesting is one of the major advantages of using LESS on top of CSS - instead of writing
You can write
This leads to rather better code structuring. Since every object in Mapnik is an atom - it doesn’t contain anything else - we use LESS’s nesting exclusively for combination and drop some of its syntax.
Note the lack of the space between
.link - it’s combination, not nesting.
A lot has changed with CartoCSS over its life. One of the biggest changes was improving versioning with Mapnik: both CartoCSS and Mapnik have versions, and the CartoCSS compiler can take a Mapnik version and compile (and verify) to it.
A few scattered changes:
Carto acquired nicer ways of handling fields in datasources from Mapnik: what used to be
text-name: "[FOO]" can now be
text-name: [FOO], and using expressions like
marker-width: [FOO] can easily also support
marker-width: [FOO] * 2. This is actually kind of an insane change, because it needs to push expressions back into Mapnik, and can’t do this purely. You can use variables, like
marker-width: [FOO] * @scale, and CartoCSS does the right thing.
‘Instances’ were added by Konstantin and allow you to do:
Instead of classic casings, in which one layer of casings displays under all centerlines, this will show a casing under each line, possibly overlapping with another line underneath.
FontSets are a cool Mapnik features that we support like
Behind the scenes this is intelligent; if a lot of rules use the same list of fonts, CartoCSS does its best to condense all of the generated XML fontsets into one reference.
Cascadenik is, as far as I know, the first CSS-like map styling language - aka ‘the grandaddy’.
MapCSS is used by the OpenStreetMap project in quite a few places - Potlatch 2, JOSM, and an in-browser renderer called Kothic JS. The main difference of MapCSS is that it is relatively data-specific - while CartoCSS targets any relational datasource with
key=value pairs that can be filtered upon, MapCSS is very specific to the OSM data model:
relationrather than tables or datasources.
z-indexthat are implementation-specific.
There are scattered attempts at supporting CartoCSS in-browser - the furthest advanced being Vizzuality’s Vecnik project.
While my heart immediately wanted to just go straight CSS and used SVG for maps, this doesn’t seem to be a viable option - given that SVG mainly uses the same rendering model as HTML (with odd exclusions like no z-indexes), it’s very difficult to render complex scenes without lots of elements and hacks. It’s no wonder that the only viable vector street maps in browsers - Google’s MapsGL - use a ‘proprietary’ renderer based on WebGL instead of 2D Canvas or SVG.
But, for simple maps SVG and CSS can cut it - as they do in the iD editor project I’ve been recently working on.
Together with Stamen, Google, OpenGeo, and some community members I’ve met to talk about what to do about a cascading style sheet language for more common maps. Besides CartoCSS, there are scattered smaller languages and then a few common but unliked languages like SLD.
It’s going to be difficult - CartoCSS is made to support everything that Mapnik supports - to expose its full power, and to make a ‘subset’ that works with everything will be difficult to communicate, just as CSS has had a terrible struggle with vendor prefixes.
But, it’s a worthwhile goal and will happen. It will be especially interesting to think of CartoCSS as a simple language that can be generated, or as the source of a much simpler subset. As far as its future with Mapnik, carto-parser is an incredible effort to do native parsing - so we can drop the node.js requirement for people who want stylesheet-ed maps in Mapnik.